ROAD TO THE SOUTH: About the historical colonial and neocolonial subseción

José Pablo Quevedo*

GERMANY-Berlin: About subseción colonial and neocolonial history and the current drama of our indigenous communities. Some historical and philosophical reflections.
Part I [1] José Pablo Quevedo, Ambassador of Poets of the world in Germany.

From Santiago de Chile, Luis Arias Manzo, President of PPDM, has written that NGO-WORLD 'Poets of the World' is hosting the FIRST MEETING OF POETS OF THE WORLD ROAD SOUTH '- UNE TRAWÜN WALMAPU WIRINTUKUFE “WILLI RÜPÜ MEW” 'The event will run from Saturday 19 to Monday, February 28, 2011 in Santiago, the Chilean capital, the island of Chiloé and the Lake District, over a thousand kilometers south of Santiago in the heart of the Mapuche nation.

This event, according to my understanding, is of importance for the Mapuche communities in organized resistance to neoliberal policies of the current Chilean government, as leading intellectuals whose historical consciousness puts it next to these struggles and achievements of these peoples of our America.

Precisely, my contribution will be in the philosophical sense of history and its past and current consequences for these peoples.

In general social historical movement, say, is a form of continuous and discontinuous movement, there are transitory, and evolutionary and revolutionary processes. In our continent, as is known, the processes of social continuity was interrupted by the conquest, by the introduction of an antagonistic social system, a machine for material and spiritual destruction of our men from a form of reproduction of a parasitic feudal economy and slavery and transmitted values were based on an irrational. Above all, the social body was introduced at the stage that developed capitalist mercantilism in Europe, which then was the same Spanish gravedigger feudal state.

The historical subseción is a term or philosophical-social historical category, which allows us to receive, as an antagonistic social and economic organization [or antagonistic socio-economic formation in decline], but at another level of historical development is implemented in other, organized socially in a natural economy, and thus it transgresses its own development, deformed and implanted with characteristics that belong to this system of exploitation.

The social economic body that is inserted through violence, it mutates and affects the second, also implanted with its relations of economic production, their level of productive forces and colonial ideology at alienating.

As we know, through this merger antagonist of conquest and power, promoted a process of interruption and historical development of our continent, and then along a process of historical development are still living its consequences, which are still currently reflected in both the handling of the economy and the neoliberal policy of surrender and some of our countries. In our continent, this historical fact, has suffered a series of economic changes, social and political as reflected in our ways of living and thinking.

In our hemisphere, the ratio of total control is set from the 'discovery, conquest, and its transformation through various historical stages of development, and according to my understanding, are still contained, differentiated even in the modern era. This subseción is present since the conquest, the viceregal period, formal independence and the modern Republican.

Through conquest and the introduction of colonial rule by violence, it creates the basis of occupation and the systematic expropriation of indigenous lands, develop the physical and cultural annihilation of hundreds of ethnic groups, therefore, is determined by the subseción historical imposition born from the transplanted forms of the colonial economy which is set by the European ruling classes, and in many cases is reflected in the varied forms and current thinking, and above all, according to neoliberal policies.

In terms of their stages, they are characterized by the implementation of the system of colonial rule in its 'feudal' and 'semi-slaves' or slavery under the new economic relations established by the colonial power and dominance. Semi-feudalism and slavery, then, become the determinants and those established in the whole of our continent antagonistic forms of economic and social production.

As for the ideological form to the imposition of power we can also distinguish some of its important features:

a] The creation of a false consciousness [religious], which should serve as a reflection and interpretation of social reality Continental and to perpetuate the stranglehold of power of the Catholic Church and its dogmas, and to the dominance of the ruling classes . Do not forget, that in colonial Spain levies ideologically scholasticism, encouraged the Inquisition and the Counter. Ie the determinacy of the ideology of the victor in his political and religious unity.

b] The creation of a Continental mythological consciousness, based on Greek and Roman values, which the reality as it is should not be taken into account, but if transgressed. This can be seen in the 'Diario de Colón' and from the early speeches of Admiral Columbus to come into contact with the aborigines of our continent. And reality, is an invention on its merger with decisive ideas and Literature, which later, through the navigator Pedro de Orellana and the discovery of the Orinoco, is going to broadcast to Europe and will reach excessive fantasy, and even the creation of something very irrational ways of thinking.

In the unity of the feudal ideology, religious scholasticism, Greek and Roman values, thinking about another reality Continental unknown, reception or exists only in a fabled understanding, an understanding invented. This continent is, then being the mirror image of reality, being invented by the minds of the dominant classes, thus, the reality is transgressed in their real and existing forms. The reality is an invention, reality is distorted, and therefore, the thinking of these ruling classes is a false form of social conscience in both knowledge and its practice. The dominant ideology of the victor in an inverted world and oblivious to reality itself is a subseción Continental ideological history of American Continental. That ideology is only an instrument of domination to establish various forms of justification for its interests as a ruling class.

Ideological characteristics of the subseción:

Ideological foundation by Scholastic and a hierarchy of authority.

The justification for the doctrine of the Catholic Church, religious alienation to justify exploitation.

The elimination of other ways of thinking and the imposition of power through the laws of the Catholic Church and its instruments of justice, persecution and torture.

Racism as an ideological foundation, which lies hidden in its various forms until today.

A series of anti-rationalism and unscientific ways to think and be able to assess reality. The religious beliefs and values as absolute as to understand the reality: The obedience to religious authority and simply what is the authority, and where there is reality, it is excluded from the rest as an arbitrary act.

Essential features of the historical ideological subseción.

This concept is determined by the economic unit, social, and political ruling classes from a historical period, and within that period are made material and ideal elements determinants that allow these relations of domination. In the process of historical development we can determine its historical differentiation.

The essence of historical subseción is antagonistic and consists of classes from the colonial era have shaped this determinacy antagonistic economic, social types and forms antagonistic alienating ideologue. These classes only have mutated to the present.

Among the most important features according to their historical essence can relate to some aspects of this historical subseción:

a] Linked also to the economic determinism, colonial policy, adding or removing physical and cultural extermination of the aborínenes of our continent in the territories conquered and annexed by conquest or aggression of colonial laws. Many territories and islands which describes the Admiral Columbus from his first trip after the ethnic cleansing of the aborigines or 'not come to reason,' according to the policies of the princes of the Catholic Church, were empty and ready for the arrival of African slaves, and new labor force of brutal exploitation.

Or as F. Engels wrote: '... Und dann als Kolumbus dies entdeckt Amerika, wußte er nicht, daß er damit die in Europa zu Längst überwundne Sklaverei erweckte neuem Leben und die Grundlagen zum Negerhandel LEGTA.' ... And when, after Columbus discovered America did not know that in Europe where slavery was missing was put back in place, and was the basis for trade in the black '

Translation taken from F. essayist Engels, Dialektik der Natur, Marx / Engels, Werke, Band 20, Seite 453-454.

The modern Republic is still in its essence can not solve this problem in the territories in which they are based in part some of the Aboriginal nations. The immense wealth that these territories have not allow classes to rule those countries, in enacting laws or regulations that allow Aboriginal people to determine for themselves. They are still considered by the antagonistic state, as individuals who need to further identify, but also on their territories.

b] The so-called syncretism, or the ideological mutation of the aborigines in various cultural centers of our continent, we have been other things that the designs through the colonial economy and power, and that led them through punishment or alienation taking other European religious values and beliefs. This syncretism allows the conservatives, still impose their spirit, alienating values and images of a kingdom exist and perpetuate their privileges and power.

c] The false forms of social consciousness implemented since the colony, which is maintained and continue to appear through religious congregations and sects Anglican and American.

The historical and ideological subseción of modern classes:

The ruling classes are coming from ideology to the ships of Columbus, a conservative attitude face down history and original man, to perpetuate its rule: The religious disposition, the invention of reality, the chances media policy and raciocionios ambivalence in their current or ways of thinking and other ways of thinking that are unscientific, contribute to a violation of reality and lead to the ideological disposition of individuals.

The invention of reality, is a false form of consciousness, or consciousness subsection does not reflect the reality as it is but a subjective act is where the idea of the subject is what determines the object. The object thus becomes a game idea, fantasy or manipulation for a class factor. The invention of reality is part of subsection conservative ideology.

In this embodiment social classes based on the same scheme, to see what others see, and the object becomes the idea of the subject, which is based on principles that determines the authority.

The transgression of reality is when it should just be flooded with fantasies, illusions, and the idea becomes arbitrarily chooses it. In these modern times, this mechanism has been improved, when through the idea for the military aggression of the imperialist powers into other peoples computers and used computers and manipulated data and photos, and images come to show fictitious and illegal act of the country to which you want to attack.

José Pablo Quevedo* is a poet, writer and essayist, has 10 books of poetry and is contained in more than 30 anthologies of poetry, also has been translated into 6 languages.

[1] Note: About subseción colonial and neocolonial history and the ongoing drama of our communities. Some historical and philosophical reflections. This test is for the author's unpublished book, whose title is contained in the Philosophy of Repetition Different and other philosophical essays.

Ambassador - Germany PPDM:

Translated by_Traducido por Candida Pedersen
Artículo ROAD TO THE SOUTH en español

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